Symbols

HTML Entities for symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters

You may use any of the following:

(In the three examples above the line, extra spaces are added to prevent conversion. The general structure is &?????; from the ampersand through the semicolon:

the mnemonic form                   & alpha ;

cut and paste output                 α

code                                           & # 945 ;


 

VERIFY YOUR EMAIL REPLY TO BE CERTAIN THAT ALL SYMBOLS HAVE CONVERTED SUCCESSFULLY!

These entities were taken directly from the HTML 4.0 specification. From http://www.dionysia.org/html/entities/symbols.html

Mnemonic Output Code Output Description
Latin Extended-B
ƒ = ƒ ƒ = ƒ latin small f with hook = function = florin, U+0192 ISOtech
Greek
Α = Α Α = Α greek capital letter alpha, U+0391
Β = Β Β = Β greek capital letter beta, U+0392
Γ = Γ Γ = Γ greek capital letter gamma, U+0393 ISOgrk3
Δ = Δ Δ = Δ greek capital letter delta, U+0394 ISOgrk3
Ε = Ε Ε = Ε greek capital letter epsilon, U+0395
Ζ = Ζ Ζ = Ζ greek capital letter zeta, U+0396
Η = Η Η = Η greek capital letter eta, U+0397
Θ = Θ Θ = Θ greek capital letter theta, U+0398 ISOgrk3
Ι = Ι Ι = Ι greek capital letter iota, U+0399
Κ = Κ Κ = Κ greek capital letter kappa, U+039A
Λ = Λ Λ = Λ greek capital letter lambda, U+039B ISOgrk3
Μ = Μ Μ = Μ greek capital letter mu, U+039C
Ν = Ν Ν = Ν greek capital letter nu, U+039D
Ξ = Ξ Ξ = Ξ greek capital letter xi, U+039E ISOgrk3
Ο = Ο Ο = Ο greek capital letter omicron, U+039F
Π = Π Π = Π greek capital letter pi, U+03A0 ISOgrk3
Ρ = Ρ Ρ = Ρ greek capital letter rho, U+03A1
there is no Sigmaf, and no U+03A2 character either
Σ = Σ Σ = Σ greek capital letter sigma, U+03A3 ISOgrk3
Τ = Τ Τ = Τ greek capital letter tau, U+03A4
Υ = Υ Υ = Υ greek capital letter upsilon, U+03A5 ISOgrk3
Φ = Φ Φ = Φ greek capital letter phi, U+03A6 ISOgrk3
Χ = Χ Χ = Χ greek capital letter chi, U+03A7
Ψ = Ψ Ψ = Ψ greek capital letter psi, U+03A8 ISOgrk3
Ω = Ω Ω = Ω greek capital letter omega, U+03A9 ISOgrk3
α = α α = α greek small letter alpha, U+03B1 ISOgrk3
β = β β = β greek small letter beta, U+03B2 ISOgrk3
γ = γ γ = γ greek small letter gamma, U+03B3 ISOgrk3
δ = δ δ = δ greek small letter delta, U+03B4 ISOgrk3
ε = ε ε = ε greek small letter epsilon, U+03B5 ISOgrk3
ζ = ζ ζ = ζ greek small letter zeta, U+03B6 ISOgrk3
η = η η = η greek small letter eta, U+03B7 ISOgrk3
θ = θ θ = θ greek small letter theta, U+03B8 ISOgrk3
ι = ι ι = ι greek small letter iota, U+03B9 ISOgrk3
κ = κ κ = κ greek small letter kappa, U+03BA ISOgrk3
λ = λ λ = λ greek small letter lambda, U+03BB ISOgrk3
μ = μ μ = μ greek small letter mu, U+03BC ISOgrk3
ν = ν ν = ν greek small letter nu, U+03BD ISOgrk3
ξ = ξ ξ = ξ greek small letter xi, U+03BE ISOgrk3
ο = ο ο = ο greek small letter omicron, U+03BF NEW
π = π π = π greek small letter pi, U+03C0 ISOgrk3
ρ = ρ ρ = ρ greek small letter rho, U+03C1 ISOgrk3
ς = ς ς = ς greek small letter final sigma, U+03C2 ISOgrk3
σ = σ σ = σ greek small letter sigma, U+03C3 ISOgrk3
τ = τ τ = τ greek small letter tau, U+03C4 ISOgrk3
υ = υ υ = υ greek small letter upsilon, U+03C5 ISOgrk3
φ = φ φ = φ greek small letter phi, U+03C6 ISOgrk3
χ = χ χ = χ greek small letter chi, U+03C7 ISOgrk3
ψ = ψ ψ = ψ greek small letter psi, U+03C8 ISOgrk3
ω = ω ω = ω greek small letter omega, U+03C9 ISOgrk3
ϑ = ϑ ϑ = ϑ greek small letter theta symbol, U+03D1 NEW
ϒ = ϒ ϒ = ϒ greek upsilon with hook symbol, U+03D2 NEW
ϖ = ϖ ϖ = ϖ greek pi symbol, U+03D6 ISOgrk3
General Punctuation
• = • • = • bullet = black small circle, U+2022 ISOpub
bullet is NOT the same as bullet operator, U+2219
… = … … = … horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader, U+2026 ISOpub
′ = ′ ′ = ′ prime = minutes = feet, U+2032 ISOtech
″ = ″ ″ = ″ double prime = seconds = inches, U+2033 ISOtech
‾ = ‾ ‾ = ‾ overline = spacing overscore, U+203E NEW
⁄ = ⁄ ⁄ = ⁄ fraction slash, U+2044 NEW
Letterlike Symbols
℘ = ℘ ℘ = ℘ script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p, U+2118 ISOamso
ℑ = ℑ ℑ = ℑ blackletter capital I = imaginary part, U+2111 ISOamso
ℜ = ℜ ℜ = ℜ blackletter capital R = real part symbol, U+211C ISOamso
™ = ™ ™ = ™ trade mark sign, U+2122 ISOnum
ℵ = ℵ ℵ = ℵ alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal, U+2135 NEW
alef symbol is NOT the same as hebrew letter alef, U+05D0 although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters
Arrows
← = ← ← = ← leftwards arrow, U+2190 ISOnum
→ = → → = → rightwards arrow, U+2192 ISOnum
↓ = ↓ ↓ = ↓ downwards arrow, U+2193 ISOnum
↔ = ↔ ↔ = ↔ left right arrow, U+2194 ISOamsa
↵ = ↵ ↵ = ↵ downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return, U+21B5 NEW
⇐ = ⇐ ⇐ = ⇐ leftwards double arrow, U+21D0 ISOtech
Unicode does not say that lArr is the same as the 'is implied by' arrow but also does not have any other character for that function. So ? lArr can be used for 'is implied by' as ISOtech suggests
⇑ = ⇑ ⇑ = ⇑ upwards double arrow, U+21D1 ISOamsa
⇒ = ⇒ ⇒ = ⇒ rightwards double arrow, U+21D2 ISOtech
Unicode does not say this is the 'implies' character but does not have another character with this function so ? rArr can be used for 'implies' as ISOtech suggests
⇓ = ⇓ ⇓ = ⇓ downwards double arrow, U+21D3 ISOamsa
⇔ = ⇔ ⇔ = ⇔ left right double arrow, U+21D4 ISOamsa
Mathematical Operators
∀ = ∀ ∀ = ∀ for all, U+2200 ISOtech
∂ = ∂ ∂ = ∂ partial differential, U+2202 ISOtech
∃ = ∃ ∃ = ∃ there exists, U+2203 ISOtech
∅ = ∅ ∅ = ∅ empty set = null set = diameter, U+2205 ISOamso
∇ = ∇ ∇ = ∇ nabla = backward difference, U+2207 ISOtech
∈ = ∈ ∈ = ∈ element of, U+2208 ISOtech
∉ = ∉ ∉ = ∉ not an element of, U+2209 ISOtech
∋ = ∋ ∋ = ∋ contains as member, U+220B ISOtech
should there be a more memorable name than 'ni'?
∏ = ∏ ∏ = ∏ n-ary product = product sign, U+220F ISOamsb
prod is NOT the same character as U+03A0 'greek capital letter pi' though the same glyph might be used for both
∑ = ∑ ∑ = ∑ n-ary sumation, U+2211 ISOamsb
sum is NOT the same character as U+03A3 'greek capital letter sigma' though the same glyph might be used for both
− = − − = − minus sign, U+2212 ISOtech
∗ = ∗ ∗ = ∗ asterisk operator, U+2217 ISOtech
√ = √ √ = √ square root = radical sign, U+221A ISOtech
∝ = ∝ ∝ = ∝ proportional to, U+221D ISOtech
∞ = ∞ ∞ = ∞ infinity, U+221E ISOtech
∠ = ∠ ∠ = ∠ angle, U+2220 ISOamso
∧ = ∧ ∧ = ∧ logical and = wedge, U+2227 ISOtech
∨ = ∨ ∨ = ∨ logical or = vee, U+2228 ISOtech
∩ = ∩ ∩ = ∩ intersection = cap, U+2229 ISOtech
∪ = ∪ ∪ = ∪ union = cup, U+222A ISOtech
∫ = ∫ ∫ = ∫ integral, U+222B ISOtech
∴ = ∴ ∴ = ∴ therefore, U+2234 ISOtech
∼ = ∼ ∼ = ∼ tilde operator = varies with = similar to, U+223C ISOtech
tilde operator is NOT the same character as the tilde, U+007E, although the same glyph might be used to represent both
≅ = ≅ ≅ = ≅ approximately equal to, U+2245 ISOtech
≈ = ≈ ≈ = ≈ almost equal to = asymptotic to, U+2248 ISOamsr
≠ = ≠ ≠ = ≠ not equal to, U+2260 ISOtech
≡ = ≡ ≡ = ≡ identical to, U+2261 ISOtech
≤ = ≤ ≤ = ≤ less-than or equal to, U+2264 ISOtech
≥ = ≥ ≥ = ≥ greater-than or equal to, U+2265 ISOtech
⊂ = ⊂ ⊂ = ⊂ subset of, U+2282 ISOtech
⊃ = ⊃ ⊃ = ⊃ superset of, U+2283 ISOtech
⊄ = ⊄ ⊄ = ⊄ not a subset of, U+2284 ISOamsn
⊆ = ⊆ ⊆ = ⊆ subset of or equal to, U+2286 ISOtech
⊇ = ⊇ ⊇ = ⊇ superset of or equal to, U+2287 ISOtech
⊕ = ⊕ ⊕ = ⊕ circled plus = direct sum, U+2295 ISOamsb
⊗ = ⊗ ⊗ = ⊗ circled times = vector product, U+2297 ISOamsb
⊥ = ⊥ ⊥ = ⊥ up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular, U+22A5 ISOtech
⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ dot operator, U+22C5 ISOamsb
dot operator is NOT the same character as U+00B7 middle dot
Miscellaneous Technical
⌈ = ⌈ ⌈ = ⌈ left ceiling = apl upstile, U+2308 ISOamsc
⌉ = ⌉ ⌉ = ⌉ right ceiling, U+2309 ISOamsc
⌊ = ⌊ ⌊ = ⌊ left floor = apl downstile, U+230A ISOamsc
⌋ = ⌋ ⌋ = ⌋ right floor, U+230B ISOamsc
⟨ = ⟨ 〈 = 〈 left-pointing angle bracket = bra, U+2329 ISOtech
lang is NOT the same character as U+003C 'less than' or U+2039 'single left-pointing angle quotation mark'
⟩ = ⟩ 〉 = 〉 right-pointing angle bracket = ket, U+232A ISOtech
rang is NOT the same character as U+003E 'greater than' or U+203A 'single right-pointing angle quotation mark'
Geometric Shapes
◊ = ◊ ◊ = ◊ lozenge, U+25CA ISOpub
Miscellaneous Symbols
♠ = ♠ ♠ = ♠ black spade suit, U+2660 ISOpub
black here seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow
♣ = ♣ ♣ = ♣ black club suit = shamrock, U+2663 ISOpub
♥ = ♥ ♥ = ♥ black heart suit = valentine, U+2665 ISOpub
♦ = ♦ ♦ = ♦ black diamond suit, U+2666 ISOpub